INTERACTION OF MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES FUNCTIONS
Principles and Practice of Management
February 14, 2016
Management refers to the process of coordinating the efforts of people to facilitate the attainment of organizational objectives. The management process itself is more intricate that what the definition offers. Management experts reckon that it encompasses four activities, namely planning, controlling, leading, and organizing. In the dynamic environment that 21st-century organizations are subject to, management functions continue to be the core pillars that support the realization of goals.
Basic Activities/Functions of Management
This function of management entails setting up of objectives and determins the means to achieve them. Analysts argue that it is the most intricate activity carried out by managers and that all other managerial functions rely on it. Three main levels of planning exist, which are strategic planning, tactical planning, and operational planning. Of the three mentioned levels, strategic planning has the broadest scope. It does not only cater for the entire organization but also has a longer time scope of more than three years.
Tactical planning has a shorter time scope and its practice in mainly in organizationsâ€™ departments. Its time scope may range from one to three years. For instance, the type of planning that the finance or the human resources departments have are typically tactical. Finally, operational plans help to manage daily activities of an organization. Their time limits usually do not exceed one year. Examples of such plans are timetables and duty rosters. The operational plans assist in achieving the objectives of tactical plans, which also facilitate the attainment of strategic plans. Planning forms the basis for the other functions of management.
Organizing, as a managerial function, seeks to develop an appropriate structure of an organization and also adequately allocate human resources.
In creating a sustainable organizational structure, managers enlist the help of organizational charts.best essay writer They are graphical illustrations of the chain of command that an institution follows. The act of organizing also involves departmentalization. Depending on the culture and preferences of top level management, departmentalization may be with respect to function, product, customer or geographical location. On the other hand, organizing human resources require managers to appropriately define the duties expected of each employee. This process may entail detailing the job descriptions of different classes of employees. An important factor to consider when undertaking this activity is division of labor and specialization, as it ensures maximum productivity of workers.
Leading is a management function that enables managers to use their power and charisma to influence subordinates to act in the best interest of the organization.
The organizational structure, which is a product of the organizing function, serves as the determinant of who a leader should be. To become an effective leader, a manager has to possess good communication, interpersonal, and motivational skills. They help the leader understand the values, beliefs, and personalities of subordinates. Several leadership theories explain this function of management, and they all agree that it requires the effort of a leader to influence the attitudes of employees towards work. Motivation theories have also been instrumental in conceptualizing the concept of leadership. The underlying premise held in this function is that subordinates will only show enthusiasm towards their work if a good leader is in place.
This managerial activity involves preventing and regulating deviations from standards prescribed in the organizational plans.
Therefore, there can be no controlling without planning. Due to the dynamic nature of workplaces, it is quite normal for there to be some anomalies, especially in production. These irregularities are undesirable as they reflect poorly on the original plan. To establish control, managers observe three steps, which are setting performance standards, engaging in continuous monitoring, and comparing performances against the standards. Performance measurement may be in monetary terms, number of units produced and many others. A common misunderstanding is that controlling is about manipulating people in organizations to act in a particular manner. However, controlling only relates to how managers control deviations to ensure that performance is as planned.Â
The functional approach to management is applicable in almost all forms of organizations. This fact makes the activities important to managers in the world today. All the four functions outlined in this paper give an elaborate way to describe management. Even though changes have occurred in this field, the four activities still play a crucial role in defining the roles of managers. This review has also demonstrated that all the activities do not stand alone. Rather, they depend on each other to function well.
Carpenter, Mason Andrew, Talya Bauer, and Berrin Erdogan. Principles of management.
Washington: Flat World Knowledge, 2009: 27-35.
Koontz, Harold. Essentials of management. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010: 83-88.
. Mason Andrew Carpenter, Talya Bauer, and Berrin Erdogan. Principles of management.
Washington: Flat World Knowledge, 2009: 27.
. Ibid., 27.
. Some authors argue that it should be more than five years
. Ibid., 35.
. Koontz, Harold. Essentials of management. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010: 83.
. Ibid., 86.
. Ibid., 87.
. Ibid., 88.